html> Guam National Wildlife Refuge Star Cave. Guam Starcave. Ritidian star calander. Crab Nebula or Crab Supernova. Rudolph Villaverde. Rudy Villaverde

By Rudolph Villaverde. Abstract: The Ritidian cave at Northern Guam shelters a complex systematic collection of pictographs which cogently commemorates two sky narratives. The first, presented by this website, describes the 1054AD Crab Supernova. This document is part 1 of a larger thesis supported by data found in 3 caves of Guam: Ritidian Star Cave, Talofofo Cave, and Inarajan Gadao Cave.

In 1999, astronomer Dr. Rosina Iping associated a 'calander' pictograph at Ritidian to ancient stars in a significant presentation to the American Astronomical Society. The 16 dots arranged both veritically and horizontally are stars marking out the months (BBC news. Saturday, Jan 9, 1999. http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/251847.stm). Guam's ancient seafaring culture uniquely practiced celestial navigation without compass, sextant, or charts. Location, time, weather patterns and ocean currents were approximated from the rising and setting of stars, the sun, moon, wave sizes, presence of birds and migration of sea creatures.

A remnant of that past -- the Star Calander pictograph at the Ritidian caves of Northern Guam was first discovered by Ranger John Sanchez of Fish and Wildlife location: N13.64892 E 144.85620 . Dr. Rosina Iping's depiction of the Star Calander spurred worldwide attention in 1999. The meaning of the Star Calander or Star Map can be decoded using a Traditional Navigational tool called the Micronesian Star Compass (also called the sidereal compass). The sidereal compass, still utilized today is bounded by 16 months of unequal length which were each named for a star (or constellation). A month begins when its star stands about 45 degrees above the eastern horizon just before dawn (Thomas, Steve. The last Navigator. 1997; pg 268). These stars are navigational beacons and are incorporated into ritual memorization of stars appearing above different islands when viewed from different locations.

It is imperative to state from the onset that each photo captioned below are not arbitary random interpretations but individually and collectively buttress the meaning of the "star calander" decoded using the sidereal compass. Each pictograph holistically describes the functional and organic relationship of individual parts to the whole theme on each wall. .

The cave is an ancestral burial site punctuated by pottery shards and bones exposed by the diggings of ungulates (personal witness to buried bones outside the rear cave entrance in 1999). "Sacred places are thought of as 'hot' (maipe) or saturated with spirit-energy (Flood, Bo. et al. Pacific Island Legends.1999. Bess Press. page 244)." Archaeological investigations reveal that the Litekyan area had been occupied 3,300 years ago (Mike Carson Phd, guampedia.com, "Ancient Fishing Camps"). At the threshold entrance of the cave is a depiction of a bone-tipped spear suggesting that the paintings were composed during the Latte Period. Father Charles Le Gobien, of the Society of Jesus Paris 1700 wrote, "It was the custom of the Chamorros to bury their dead in caves designated for this purpose and their obstinacy in this matter was very strong. They did not want to be separated from their ancestors, they said, and it was their duty to be united to them after death." This Part 1 paper is strongly suggesting that these cave images are commemorative and spiritual in nature but using constellations and ancient implements of navigation to crack its code. The pictographs are not tools of pedagogy. The site is spiritually sacred and the paintings are not utilized for training or teaching children navigation. In other words, the subject discussed is not "land finding" but rather pathfinding utilizing existing techniques to find star regions in the sky rather than islands. This is about commemoration and not explicitly traditional navigation because in land finding "knowledge of the stars is not enough for they shine less than half the time" (Brower, Kenneth. A Song for Satawal. 1983. p 125).

The cave drawings were executed in a cave with virtually no illumination. In exhibit are large complex charcoal images drawn unified into a singular theme. Because ancient Chamoru mariners paint their proas and houses, we extrapolate that provisionally, mineral pigments of reddish-brown clay, black charcoal and white quicklime (calcium hydroxide) known as åfok are mixed with lime and coconut oil (Rogers, Robert. Destiny's Landfall. 1995 UH Press; p.31)(Cunningham, Lawrence. et al. Restoring Traditional Seafaring and Navigation in Guam. 2006 Nov. Micronesian; p. 315. See bibliography). The explorer Louis Freycinet in 1819 wrote that by mixing (lemai breadfruit sap) rima milk with coloring earths or the black matter from burning coconut shells, the natives obtain coloring agents or paints (Barrat, Glynn. Louis Claude de Freycinet. 2003. p. 180).

This is our 1st glimpse of Chamorro star constellations intrinsic to the navigation season, Jan through the first half of September (Gladwin, Thomas. East Is a Big Bird. 1970. Harvard University Press; pg 44). Night constellations were drawn as images projected directly to the cave walls. In other words, the paintings are the shadows of real constellations whereby left becomes right and right becomes left as illustrated by the orion constellation cave painting at the middle of this page. Drawing the sky this way is not unique. For example, Remmet Teunisse Backer a Dutch Amsterdam cartographer in 1709 also drew a celestial chart as projections (as if looking towards the Earth from beyond the stars www.rmg.co.uk/stories-of-the-skies/orion/museum/star-chart-by-remmet-teunisse-backer). Google Sky (www.google.com/sky) presents its "historical" hand-painted sky panel reversed (left is right, right is left) in this same manner. For the first time, we can relearn the existence of these constellations lost and forgotten as a result of massive population decimation during the Chamorro-Spanish War. Historian Benigno Palomo noted that the First official Spanish Census of Guam (Guahan) and Rota taken in 1710 indicated that there were 3,143 natives and 471 Spanish/mestizos left.

The site elicits feelings of sacred veneration - Pacific Islanders believe that there is no separation between the spritual and physical world. Spirits exist not only in humans but in plants, rocks, rivers, ocean, wind and even perhaps the sky and stars. The images on the walls of the Star Cave were painted directly as projections of nature's constellations. As with Chamoru legends (expounded in my thesis) the search for meanings is performed by projecting the picture upward into the sky and studying its respective relationship with its surrounding constellations. Then, you can qualitatively interpret the image within the framework of archaoastronomy. For the first time ever, we reach back a thousand years to undertake a dialog with our Chamoru Saina (ancestors) when they attempted to conceptualize a major stellar event on the cave walls. A net is cast by reconstructing the purpose of the painted images inspired by Chamoru spirits of navigation of an uncommon stellar event interpreted by the faulosnga or 'master starfarers' (known as palus in the Caroline Islands). The conclusion below is of the author, R. Villaverde, but built beyond the work of researchers as Dr. Vince Diaz, Rosina Iping, Dr. Cunningham and others.

Please Click Icons to Enlarge!


Entrance to Ritidian Ancestral Burial Grounds at the base of a cliff. Timeless, haunting, mystery-filled pair of elevated passageways framed by dripping stalactites. Click here.

Mortars carved into limestone base for pulverization of possibly red clay, white quicklime (afok) or charcoal with coconut oil as fixing agent for paint. Click to Enlarge.


The Chamorros have a 2nd Calander not based on stars but on 13 moon cycles for planting. Ostensibly, the size or illumination of the full moon (3 inch diam) may have been used for a baseline comparison to the nova pictographs closeby.


In 1999 UOG astronomy professor Dr. Rosina Iping advanced an observation that the pictographs at the Ritidian cave Complex were associated with the stars. About this time, Dr. Vincente Diaz founded the Traditional Navigation Curriculum at Univ of Guam with Puluwatan Master Navigator Sosthenes Emwalu. In 2004, Dr. Larry Cunningham and Master Navigator Manus Sikau took over the initiative to reestablish the 4 thousand year old Chamoru School of Navigation called "Great Spirit". Dr. Cunningham helped provide information about the sidereal compass which was needed to crack the code.



Frank Leon Guerrero proposed that the images on the threshold entrance of the cave summarized the theme of the paintings. For example, on the doorway pillars are "guide signs". One of them is a handprint of possibly red clay pigments indicating that the pictographs relate to events closeby but outside the Auriga constellation (see below for attribution to hand constellation). Of course, the crab supernova of 1054AD which is in the Taurus constellation is just next door to Auriga.


Charcoal Shadow projection of 9 inch tall Orion constellation (left is right and right is left) at Ritidian Guam starcave. The Chamoru composition is in a style comparable to the Quadra Island orion rock petroglyph. The linked illustration is an exact rendition of an original sketch from a book of petroglyphs by first native peoples of Quadra Island, British Columbia, Canada ( reference: Inglish, Joy. "Spirit in the Stone"; 1998. Horsdal & Schubart Publishers. pg. 93).

Constellation Orion as interpreted by Guam Chamorro Navigators 1000 years ago. Orion is next door to Taurus where the Crab Supernova occurred.


Exploding (6 inch diam) star pictograph. Chinese Astronomers report that the exploding star Crab Supernova of Taurus on July 4 1054 AD was reddish white with pointed rays in 4 directions and visible in daylight for 23 days in China (Verbelen, Felix: Aug 2006). Rayed stars as inspired traditional symbols, were known to ancient peoples who believed the rays to be natural appendages (Steffey, Philip C.; Sept 11 1996).

Unveiling the "HAND Constellation" pentagon shaped Auriga. The key to interpreting this painting lies in the observation that the stick figure is drawn ontop of a red handprint. It is a composite of 2 constellations occupying the same location in space. Note that the red thumb extends into the triangle shaped Taurus pictogram. In general, handprints for this particular cave are drawn to represent pentagon type constellations.

Pictographs are redundantly expressed in alternative perspectives to validate the subject matter. This is possibly the hand constellation in its signature orientation with an elongated exaggerated thumb as part of the Taurus constellation. This singular painting occupies its own Ritidian cave wall.

Can the gender of Red clay handprint be determined? A technique called the 2d:4d ratio is Calculated with the index finger length '2d' longer than ring finger '4d' length. The result is large 2d:4d ratio. This means that the painter had low exposure to testostorone in the uterus. Dr. Dennis Borja cautions that the digit ratio is not reliable for gender identity. Star Navigation is not solely a male activity. Photo: archaeologist use finger ratio in French cave Discovery Channel

STAR CALANDER! The 19 inch vertical line of 16 stars intersects the 20 inch horizontal line of 16 stars right after the 6th star Aldebaran. The injection of a new dot between the 6th (Aldeberan) and 7th star (bellatrix - companion star to gamma aquila) points to the location of the supernova in Taurus.

Illustrating the meaning of the vertical axis of the Star Calender to locate the latitude of the Crab supernova.
Gemini pictograph as ancient commemoration of Crab supernova
Significance of the Gemini pictograph as ancient commemoration of Crab Supernova 1054AD. Click to Enlarge.

Pictograph of
rectangle gemini constellation
rising over the horizon east of crab supernova.
The floor of the cave represents the horizon
This is a mirror image
left is right, right is left.


Five feet in front of the Star Calander is a pictograph of 6 stars and a cluster of 10 stars. Interpreted, it means that the line of 16 stars is deliberately drawn to separate the 6th star aldebaran from the remaining 10 stars of the sidereal compass.


The star calander pictograph was painted linearly to depict the horizon with navigational stars (dots) arranged about it. The straight line shape departs from the standard circular arrangement of the sidereal compass called merek keiky or "unfolding of the mat of knowledge". The major hemispheres of 16 star rising versus 16 stars setting are set linearly. This may be the first sign that the stellar theme of the cave drawing may not directly focus explicitly on conventional terrestrial/ocean navigation.

The vertical column of the StarCave Calendar intersects the horizontal axis of dots on the 6th star. The painter may be attempting to convey a significant event in the sky. The 6th star in the Star Compass {from the "numbering of the stars process called Paafu"} is named Uul. Uul is the star Aldebaran located R.A. 4:35:55.23 Declination: +24:6:18. Aldebaran marks the red eye of the Constellation Taurus the Bull. The late Master Navigator Mau Pialug describes a navigational technique called Morellifu "or the fighting of stars" which pegs the appearance of Aldeberan or Uul as the month of "JULY" -- A Month for turtles, fishing, breadfruit and good winds (Thomas, Steve. The Last Navigator. 1987. International Marine / Ragged Mountain Press. Page 270).


From an indigeneous 'aboriginal' perspective, the symbolic interpretation of these cave art compositions must and can be supported by oral history (ancient mythologies). An ancient Guam legend of Camel Rock published in the books "Legends of Guam" by Guam Public Schools and "Hemplon Nana Siha" by Chamorro Affairs Govt of Guam, narrates the sudden appearance of a bright star extrapolated to rise above the horizon at 2 a.m. heralding the 2nd ancient invasion of Guam -- by a group of star navigators seeking a footprint on new lands under auspices of the existing indigeneous inhabitants of the the Sinahe Archipelago (Marianas Isles). Postulated from the legend (and a Ritidian starcave pictograph of a latte-era bone-tipped spear), there are compelling oral narratives that these visitors may be associated to an era of the Latte monuments. According to the book Tiempon I Manmofo'na ... radiocarbon C14 dating of latte stone sites placed the origins of the Latte Period at 1000 A.D. Additionally, a MTDNA genetic study (Vilar Miguel. The Origins and Genetic Distinctiveness of the Chamorros of the Marianas Islands: An mtDNA Perspective. 14Oct2012. American Journal of Human Biology) suggests a second migration to Guam from ISEA at 1000 ybp introducing the latte pillars and rice agriculture to the Marianas. The massive and rapid spread of latte stones began accelerating on 1100A.D. throughout the Marianas archipelego. This date is concurred by the book "Destiny's Landfall" by Rogers pg.33 "Prelatte Period, which lasted up until between A.D. 800 and A.D. 1000, and a Latte Period thereafter". The search for the famed "dinagi laolao" star probably near AD 1000 {occuring in the month of "July" based on the Ritidian star calander) is intertwined with the manifestation of major cultural changes and spreading of the Latte site settlements.

Summary: The stellar event painted on the Ritidian Cave occured in the Vicinity of the Aldeberan star in Taurus on the month of "JULY". Based on legend, close to the year 1000A.D. The Latte Period not only introduced the latte stone monolith, and rice to the Marianas but caused transitional changes in the pottery (Rainbird, Paul. 2004; pg 120-124).. According to Al Lizama (archeologist), the Latte Period was characterized by widespread betelnut stains on the teeth of adult ancestral remains. Dr. Gary Heathcote indicated that incised sculpted hash markings on teeth from one Tumon, Guam site dated during the Latte Period. The anecdotal evidence of cultural influence heralds some new physical change in the character of the navigation society on Guam.


GuamPDN article discussing Dr. Rosina Iping's hypothesis of celestial calander pictograph on a deeper level. Click Photo.

The micronesian star compass or the sidereal star compass, is the key to deciphering the Guam Ritidian Star Calander! The 6th star from the North Star Polaris is called Uul (Aldebaran the red eye of Taurus)
Each constellation is drawn by its increasing distance away from celestial North. Below Aldebaran's latitude on the compass, are 3 stars belonging to Aquila the eagle easily located as it is bounded to the North by a big Northern Cross (Cygnus the Swan) and to the South by Sagitarius. Aquila is visible on the Western morning July Sky.
The 3 stars of Aquila the eagle are part of the Micronesian Constellation called the Big Bird which rises almost true east and decends almost true west. The 7th star gamma aquila and 9th star beta aquila are the wings of Aquila the Eagle visible in the Western July morning sky. Taurus's Aldebaran and Pleaides rises on the East July Morning sky. The twin counterpart stars of gamma and beta aquila marking East and West in the July Sky near Taurus are Bellatrix a star of Orion and Procyon of Canis Minor [according to the book "East is a Big Bird"].
Shadow projection {left becomes right and visa versa} Crescent waning 4th quarter moon of July 4, 1054. The crab supernova is above it. Constellation shadow projection of Taurus [left is right & visa versa]. A V like star arrangement with 3 pairs of stars converging on a point. A very dark square [symbolic for star magnitude] is emphasized on the tip of the Southern horn on the star zeta Tauri. This is the location of the Crab Super Nova. The V like Pictograph is bisected by the 13.5 inch line ecliptic or path of the sun.
Handprint constellation signifies Auriga partially visible. On May 10 1054AD, 6:20 p.m. a total solar Eclipse occurred with the constellation Taurus located behind a setting Sun. "The appearance of supernova 1054 on May 10 is supported by accounts in China (Sung-shih-hsin-pien) and Mesoamerica (Maya and Aztecs)(Verbelen, Felix. 2006; p.13-14)". The Crab supernova debut during a solar eclipse may have rendered a metaphysical prominence to it since its luminosity would have outshone the sun and moon for a brief time.

A very significant image fronting the star calander on the cave ceiling 5 feet in front and to the northeast is a drawing of a cluster of 6 stars and a separate cluster of 10 stars. As a matter of interpretation, the "ground-zero" event image of 16 stars is the focus of this cave illustration where the ancient astronomer desires it interpreted as a division of two elements i.e. the 6th star aldebaran and the remaining rising cluster of 10 stars of the sidereal star compass.

The main Calander is two dimensional. The navigator / astronomer may have had to express one vertical axis showing the latitude of the event; and one horizontal axis showing the celestial position of the event on the star compass.

The vertical chart of 16 dots continues downward converging or intersecting with the horizontal star chart. The horizontal chart is 17 dots total. One dot is contributed by the vertical chart so it is really 16 evenly spaced stars of the sidereal star compass. The 2 charts intersect to the right of the sidereal 6th star called Uul (marking July) or Aldebaran in Taurus. The injection of an extra dot from the vertical chart means we are referring to the creation of a brand new 'guest' star and not really Aldebaran but close to it. It isn't between the 5th dot pleiades and Aldebaran. Rather, it is on the other side of aldebaran. The sidereal star compass was made to locate islands and sea lane routes. Its adaptation to pinpoint a stellar event in the heavens exceeds its design. Consequently, the cave painter ingeniously modified the geometry of the compass to allow documentation of the event in the sky.

We now pause momentarily to explain that the 7th star of the sidereal compass is Gamma Aquila, the 8th star is Altair, and the Ninth star is Beta Aquilae are all part of one Micronesian constellation called "The Big Bird". This is known in cannonical western astronomy as Aquilae the Eagle. Altair rises and sets 7 degrees north of the equator but bears almost true east when it rises on the horizon. Gamma and Beta Aquilae are its wings. In July, The Eagle lies in the West Morning Sky. On the East Morning July sky where Taurus lies, navigators look to Gamma and Beta Aquilae's twin counterpart stars called Bellatrix of the Constellation Orion and Procyon of Canis minor [according to the book "East is a Big Bird"]. Very simply put, the original star explosion occurred in an area between Aldeberan and Bellatrix but closer to Aldeberan in Taurus.

To reiterate: Thus far, the pictograph reveals 1. The stellar location of a major ancient event in the heavens (near Aldebaran on the side of Orion's ) star Bellatrix, 2. The month, July 'Uul' of the occurance and 3. the year (between 1000-1100 AD based on legend and C14 dating of the start of the Latte Period).

The new dot of the star calander which was injected by the intersection of the vertical and horizontal lines lies (longitude-wise in the real sky) between Aldebaran (the red eye of Taurus) and in the horizontal direction of Bellatrix (a star of orion the hunter which substitutes for gamma Aquilae in the East July Morning Sky). This preliminary approximation marks the location of a great supernova stellar explosion which later formed the Crab Nebula also called M1 or Messier Object Number One. If you desire to visually inspect Pleaides, Taurus' primary red star Aldebaran plus the crab nebula i.e. exploded remnant neutron star called M1, Click this line to visually inspect this stellar region.

This interpretation is supported by the existence of an actual cave illustration {shadow projection} of the V-like Taurus constellation with a darken emphasized square [symbolic for star magnitude] drawn on the tip of the southern horn star i.e. zeta tauri which was the approximate location of the Crab Supernova. The location of the supernova is also depicted by the orion pictograph with the crab supernova above it.

This ancient Supernova star explosion started as a red giant star which cooled to a point that its gravity imploded its core into a spinning neutron star (30 rpms/sec). The outer crust was blown off creating a star explosion which illuminated the daytime sky for 23 days starting on July 04, 1054 A.D. (4 times brighter than venus as documented by Chinese astronomers) emitting more culmulative energy than a whole galaxy.

X-ray Nasa picture of exploded crab supernova with remnant neutron star or pulsar in center of nebula. Are there ancient folktales which share common themes with Marianas Chamoru pictographs regarding the 1054AD and 1006AD supernovas? The answer is compelling and surprising.
Indigenous starmap atlas of crab supernova at Taurus based on anastazi pictograph as reference.

It is important to note that on the first cave chamber on its east side is stone column with a charcoal shadow projection image {left becomes right and visa versa} of a waning 4th quarter crescent moon with a star drawn above it. Because åfok or quicklime takes a week of burning coral to manufacture and red clay is found on Mount Santa Rosa and also in Yigo's Peace Memorial Park but may take days to extract, charcoal is the quickest pigment to procure to immediately draw the appearance of the supernova in relation to the moon. According to a nasa moon website a waning 4th quarter crescent moon occurs on July 4th 1054. Sightings of this moon phase and supernova was dated by the the Chinese despite bad weather. Click here.

This sublime event in the midst of the voyaging season, may have been profound for the Chamorro navigators or masters of divining the heavens, to record it in pictographs. Other cultures as the Chinese, Japanese, Arabs, Europeans did the same. The ancient American Indians recorded a similar crescent waning moon in Petrographs paintings at New Mexico's Chaco Canyon near Penansco Blanco ruin.

On the cave column is a red pigment drawing of the May 10, 1054 6 p.m. Total Solar Eclipse. Taurus being a zodiac sign, is exactly behind the giant orange setting sun at that instant. The Crab Supernova may be just beginning and makes its debut appearance near the Eclipse. The Guiness Book of World Records stresses that the duration of a solar eclipse never exceeds 7 minutes 30 seconds. If seen by man for those 7 minutes, the new guest star may have been brighter than the eclipsing sun and moon and could have been first sighted there. The supernova attains a mystical status from the lens of a chamorro Manmakana as the two brightest objects (sun and moon) dim themselves in deference to the M1 guest star.

The Crab Supernova [click for x-ray picture] (Right Ascension 05:34.5(h:m) Declination +22:01 (deg:m) near the star Aldeberan in the Constellation of Taurus the Bull was noted in the Legend of Camel Rock. It was visible to the Chinese astronomers at night to the naked eye for about 653 days i.e. but nevertheless less than 2 years.

The Inspiration for the Ritidian Star Chart

It is now clear that the linear nature of the Cave Star Chart is owed to the horizon line whereupon stars rise and fall. The horizontal axis of the pictograph was an attempt to show the month and location of the event as the star aldeberan rises above the horizon and precedes the rising of the crab supernova.

The interpretation for the vertical axis of the star calander: The simpliest explanation: To the left of the vertical 16-star horizon hangs a vertical line of 5 dots (Pleiades). To the left of it hangs a vertical line of 6 dots (aldeberan). This means that if we are on the Ritidian Beach (Northern Guam July 5 1054AD) and mark a pointer on the beach pointing to the morning horizon where pleaides (5th dot) rises. We then wait for awhile until (Aldeberan 6 dot) hangs over the horizon. When this happens, you will find that the marker on the beach will be pointing exactly to the Crab Supernova. In other words, the latitude of the supernova {declination 22 degrees away from the north star Polaris} is almost the same latitude {declination 24 degrees} as the pleiades constellation. Check the latitude of M1 Crab Nebula with the Pleiades Constellation to confirm this by clicking a really old cartesian star map 171k I drew up and trace with your fingers the vertical position of these bodies. To reiterate, the reason why the star map is naturally linear is because it uses the ocean horizon of Ritidian Guam as its model to locate the approximate latitude of the Supernova. Rudolph Villaverde rev5@uog9.uog.edu Aug 24,2000

In Summary, The pictograph reveals: 1. The stellar location of a major ancient event in the heavens (near Aldebaran on the Orion side), 2. The month, July 'Uul' of the occurance and 3. the year (between 1000-1100 AD based on legend of the landing of refugee seafarers and the acceleration of prolific monolithic building (C14 dating) of the Latte Period). 4. The Phase of the Moon (waning 4th quarter crescent) of July 4, 1054. 5. The Northern latitude of the event [roughly approximate to latitude of the rising Pleiades constellation which leads to the location of the M1 Crab Supernova. 6. The exploded star location was revealed by a red clay cave drawing of the Taurus constellation where the magnitude of the southern horn-tip star zeta tauri was emphasized by a dark square. 7. Further supporting this observation is a pictograph of the May 10, 1054 total solar eclipse where the constellation Taurus is behind the setting sun with the young Crab Supernova debuting near the eclipse. The Supernova becomes significant as the moon and sun subordinate their illumination to the new guest star. 8. The linear 2 axis pictograph called the 'star calander' mapped the supernova location based on the Sideral Micronesian Star Compass. 9. The explosion was observed by the Chinese which supported the date of July 4, 1054 and The Anastazi Indians of Chaco Canyon New Mexico who painted the pictograph of the crescent Moon phase during that event in mutual concordance with the Chamoru version within the Ritidian Cave.

Final Comment:

Click above image to see
the Guam sky 4am July 4,
1054ad. The supernova was
bounded to the west by the
Taurus pictograph and
crescent moon pictograph.
It was bounded to the east
by the Gemini pictograph
It was bounded
to the south by
Orion.

Without the benefit of a written language, our Chamorro ancestors successfully conveyed the meaning of a remarkable event lost for a thousand years but rediscovered because of navigational tools we have relearned from the Puluwatese. A remarkable history of celestial maritime navigation is the legacy of the peoples of Micronesia. The star cave also affirms that the sidereal star compass in use today for navigation by Micronesians was in use also a thousand years ago and the position of its constellations is based on the star latitude from the North. As inferred by Dr. Vicente Diaz, the sidereal star compass is a regional tool presently used in the Marianas, the Caroline Islands, Guam, Madura (island in Indonesia) and most recently Hawaii (via the late Mau Pius Piailug). By hindsight, the harsh environmental turmoil experienced worldwide during the Medieval Warm Period spurred changes to many societies that the metaphorical invaders of Guam legend (if true) may have been climate refugees or remote relatives seeking shelter under the auspices of the Chamorus of the Sinahi Archipelago. The painting of the spear on the entry pillar ascribes the ownership of the pictographs to the latte people themselves.

If these were the latte star visitors, their epic journey to follow the supernova embraced an ancient navigation lore that underneath a major star either lies the 'Promise' of an Island or a sea route. It may have been a serendipitous discovery as this legend may have been a Chamorro mneumonic for sudden manifestation of a significant star burst (see 2nd Guam legend about sea goddess) leading them to make a metaphoric landfall on their eventual Promiseland. The origin of these peoples whose DNA had been provisionally traced in 2006 by the Genetic Anthropologist Koji Lum to lie in SouthEast Asia but more specifically from Indonesia as published in the 14Oct2012 MTDNA genetic study via the Journal of Human Biology by Dr. Miguel Vilar.

Bibiography:
Barratt, Glynn. Louis Claude de Freycinet. An Account of the Corvette L' Uranie's Sojourn at the Mariana Islands, 1819. 2003. Occasional Historical Papers No. 13. CNMI Division of Historic Preservation and the RTF Micronesian Area Research Center, Univ of Guam.
Brower, Kenneth. A Song for Satawal. Harper & Row, Publishers, New York. 1983.
Cunningham, Lawrence J., Kranz, Ward, Sikau, Manny. Restoring Traditional Seafaring and Navigation in Guam. November 2006. Vol. 5 No. 1/2. Micronesian. Journal of the Humanities and Social Sciences.
Rainbird, Paul. The Archaeology of Micronesia. 2004. Cambridge University Press.
Steffey, Philip C Phd. Sept 11,1996. Observations of Venus in Stone Age Europe. http://home.earthlink.net/~pcstef/venus_stone_age.html.
Verbelen, Felix. Eclipses and supernova 1054 in the Dresden Codex. A new astronomical approach. August 2006. MIRA Observatory, Grimbergen (Belgium).
Vilar, Miguel G., Chan, Chim W., Santos, Dana R., Lynch, Daniel, Spathis, Rita, Garruto, Ralph M., Lum, J Koji. The Origins and Genetic Distinctiveness of the Chamorros of the Marianas Islands: An mtDNA Perspective. 14 Oct 2012. American Journal of Human Biology 00:000-000 (2012). Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


LINKS:
More High-Resolution Photos of Ritidian Cave.
GuamCave Painting could be Star Calendar. BBC SciTech.
Piailug-Master Navigator.
In Search of the Latte & Proa.
Latte Stone. Monoliths in Chamoru Prehistory.
People of Guam. The Ancient Ones.
Chief Kepuha and the Spanish Legacy.
The Chamorro love for Betelnut Chewing
Cecilia - Guam's Indigenous Poet and Writer.
Sacred Vessels: Ocean Navigation in Micronesia.
Chamoru Sea Warriors of the Marianas
Chamoru Chant Blessing of Grounds for Sakman Voyaging Proa House
Ultimate Guam cultural site.
Traditional Navigation in the Western Pacific
First Chamoru Flying Sakman in 340 years.

| Ultimate Guam| Guam.org.gu| Legends of Guam|

Starcave pictographs endangered by mudwasps at Youtube
The foot thick bat manure on the cave floor indicate that the
former bat cave denizens have been extirpated by the invasive brown
tree snake. Mudwasps defacing cave art is a symptom of a larger superstory.

Please note: the pictures on this site are copyrighted @2000 You have the right to view this page and copy to a cache for reference by yourself only at a later time. You are not granted any other rights. Rudy Villaverde reserves all other rights. Unauthorised copying of any part of this site constitutes a breach of copyright. Rudolph Villaverde reserves all other rights for the reason that the subject matter herein is not complete. It is a subset of a more robust investigation involving the triangulation of 3 separate caves and deeper cultural references.