Creation Myths of Many Countries common to Guam

"First: Guam Legends of Creation" at

By Rudolph Villaverde. Legend of Puntan and Fuuna. Creation of the World. Among the most complete version of the Creation legend was published in "Guam U.S.A. Gateway to Micronesia 1969." For the Chamorros of pre-contact times, their story as a people harkens to the very beginning of man on earth. Accordingly, the first man was known as 'Puntan'. For clarification, "Puntan is an Indigenous Chamoru word" - not a Spanish derivative (Dr. Robert Underwood Pres. Univ of Guam). The 'n' affixed after punta is an excrescent consonant used to smooth out the sound of the name in the Chamoru language (Dr. Underwood). Puntan is also a venacular reference for the pointed end of a green coconut sprout piercing the husk of a brown coconut. This reference is attributed by the village of Merizo Guam (Tony Ramirez Guam Museum Curator/archaeologist). There is another word 'pontan' (see below) used by Umatac and islands north of Guahan to refer to Puntan. 'Pontan' means a ripe fallen brown coconut (page 323. The Official Chamorro-English Dictionary. 2009).



In the beginning, "in the limitless ETHER of space, before the creation of the earth and the sky, there lived an omnipotent man named Puntan" (Barratt, Glynn. Louis Claude de Freycinet 1819. 2003. p 135). After eons of time had transverse, Puntan felt himself about to die, so he summoned his sister, Fu'una (the name spelling was used as how the legend was written) who, like himself, had been born without either father or mother, and gave her explicit directions as to the disposal of his body, and conferred upon her all his miraculous powers (Comment: His advocacy set the precedent for leadership within Chamoru clans to be shared between a male (magalahe) and a female (magahaga)). He decreed that upon his death his eyes should become the sun and the moon so that he would watch over her during the day and night; his breast, the sky; his back, the earth; his eyebrows, the rainbow; and rest of his anatomical parts, the lesser things of the world and the nether regions.

In due time Puntan (Chamoru for 'the end') physically died and Fu'una (Fo'na - Chamoru for the beginning) carried out her brother's wishes faithfully, and so, the world was created.

When Fu'una contemplated a beautiful earth that had been brought into being by her brother's command she decided that it should be peopled with men and women created in the likeness of her brother and herself. [Note: Fo'na ('beginning') and Puntan ('the end') are not brother/sister in a true sense since they did not have parents. The word for brother and sister in Chamoru is "Chelu" and sharing parents is not necessary. Further, the word is not gender specific as in the word 'sibling'.] So, to this end, in order to best accomplish her purpose, she established herself as a sea-girt rock in Southern Guam, and after she had done this she decreed, on her own account, that a certain kind of earth on this rock should first become a stone which would in time give birth to all men. So she gathered a great quantity of this earth, mixed it with the waters of the sea and caused it to solidify into a great stone. Then she commanded that this stone divide itself into many stones, a great number of which she imbued with life, and thus they became the human stock from which the races of men were disseminated throughout the world.

In Hans Hornbostel field notes 1923-1926, Padre Palomo tied together fragments of interviews from Joaquin and Vicente Taijeron, Ufana Mendiola and Balbino Guerrero. The Creation Legend was much longer and it delineates many social "Laws" for ancient Chamorus to follow. "There were two points (of many) of the Law for which I could accumulate enough evidence to make them plausible. One was .... the land tenure by women only. The second point was that no man should be able to take rank by inheritance from his father - he must win his own place in the clan. And so, the best method was to let no man be sure who his father was. ... Promiscuity during the youth and prime of life, marriage and strict monogamy after the event was passed ... Only girls visited the Uritaos, and no woman was permitted to."

This photo of male Fouha Rock
or Puntan Rock at Umatac
should not be confused with the female Fuuna
rock north of Agat.
Side Comment: Some indigenous matriarchial societies feel that since men cannot give birth, therefore they cannot create (see Russel Means ). Puntan, through death, had his essense transformed into the world via Fu'una who is woman, who can give birth and who can create. Restated, Puntan was the primeval energy which differenciates itself into matter through the devine feminine agency of Fu'una (Fo'na). Many modern-day Chamorus feel that the matriarch Fu'una is physically 'totemized' by a natural formation Lasu'Fouha (foreskin 'lassas' of Fuha). Fuha (the correct spelling from pg 149 The Official Chamorro-English Dictionary 2009)is a large circular limestone phalanx protruding from the reef straight up for some 30 feet at the northern entrance of Fouha Bay, North of Umatac Village in Southern Guam. [Totemism (from means kinship through common affiliation to a natural object. That object becomes the emblem of a clan and sometimes revered as its founder]. Others believe that the phallic pillow lava rock column in Fouha Bay (is not feminine) and is a totem representation of a male spirit soul who escaped from Chaife (reference: Don A. Farrell 2011 History of the Marianas Islands to Partition) (Cunningham, Lawrence Dr. "Ancient Chamorro Society". 1992 The Bess Press; pg 112) referenced in the next legend below.

If one is to consider the assertion that Fu'una Rock was separate landmark, Chamoru informants to Spanish priests in the 1600's claim that Fu'una is a different rock edifice north of Agat (Levesque, Rodrigue. History of Micronesia - Vol 7 "More Turmoil in the Marianas 1679-1683". 1996 Levesque Publications; pg. 213).

In An Account of the Corvette L' Uranie's Sojourn at the Mariana Islands 1819, states on page 274, "The name of Fugna (Fo'na), a rock situated by the seashore in the locality of the Peladgi Isles, to the northwest of Agat, has not be inscribed on our map". On page 71, navigational sextant positions indicate that Fo'na rock and fuha rock are two different locations. Here are the coordinates offerred by Freycinet:
Fugna (fo'na) Rock Lat. N. 13 degrees 23’ 36” Longitude East from paris 142 deg 31’ 51” and
Fuha (Fouha) Rock Lat. N 13 deg 17’ 36” Longitude E from Paris 142 deg 31’ 46”
(Barratt, Glynn. 'Louis Claude de Freycinet'. Saipan Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, Division of Historic Preservation 2003).

Lastly, Fo'na and the modern colloquialism (informal name) Fu'una may not be in contradiction if that is how she is recognized by her people by having more than one name. In 1924-1926, Hans Hornsbostel (and his wife Gertrude) wrote that the village of Umatac, Rota and the rest of the Marianas refer to the twins as Pontan and Pegpug (a condition of swelling). Fo'na was sometimes referred to as Pigpug, writes Hornsbostel. "A village south of Talofofo Bay is also called Pigpug. Today, the area is called As Alonzo Bay" (interview with Dr. Lawrence J. Cunningham).

A makahna (spirit medium) told Father Bonani on Rota that, “Oh Sayna, we believed that the stars in the sky grow as the trees do on earth. As far as the sun and moon are concerned, we believed what our old songs say, which is that Puntan gave birth to Acha (another name for fo'na), who after the death of Puntan took his eyes to make the sun and the moon, the skin of his abdomen to make the firmament, his shoulders to make the earth with mountains and valleys. He took the other bones to make all other creatures, and he took his wind (pardon the expression) to make thunder and his urine to make the sea.” Acha is the word for 'one', indicating equality. Reference: Bonani, Joseph Fr. “Letter from Fr. Bonani to Fr. Pettinati, dated Rota 27 May 1719,” Document 1719A. Translated by Rodrigue Lévesque, ed., History of Micronesia: A Collection of Source Documents, Vol. 12. Gatineau, Québec, Canada: Lévesque Publications, 1998, pp. 150-158.

Dr. Lawrence J. Cunningham stated in 2009, "The uniqueness of Chamorro culture is that it was not God the Father nor God the Mother, but Gods the Siblings. This is fundamental and shows that even the supernatural must work together (inafamaolek). Women were extremely important but they did not rule over the men. The men and women ruled. The land came to men through their mother's line but the men administered that land with input from the women."


The Legend of Chaife. CREATION OF Chamoru Natives of Guahan/Guam. In ages past there was once a Volcano spirit named Chaifi who affected the winds, the waves and fire, who existed long, long ago. [Note: Chamorro Oral history may not have opined as to the origins of Chaifi but the Japanese Creation legend identified the volcano spirit as being the offspring of the Shinto's counterparts of Puntan and Fu'una]. Chaifi lived in Sasalaguan (a volcano where souls of people who died violent deaths went). There he hammered souls using a forge and used them as servants. One day Chaifi while in haste to make more souls, built too strong a fire, the result being a terrible explosion, the smithy disgorging ashes and stones and liquid fire unto the earth. During the turmoil, one of the souls escaped and fell on the earth and landed on the southern part of Guam where it turned into stone.

But the sun shone on this stone, the rain softened it, the waves kissed its feet, and the stone became a man. The newly made man looked about him and saw how beautiful the earth was, but wanted company for his solitude. He took some red earth which he found about him, mixed it with water and formed it into the image of himself. For these images he invoked the heat of the sun, and thus created souls to give life. Many such human beings, or taotao tano 'children of the earth' he made.

Meanwhile, Chaifi, having controlled the fire in Sasalaguan volcano, checked his remaining souls and discovered one had escaped. After searching many days, Chaifi noticed a small child playing on the beach. Thinking it to be his lost soul, Chaifi sent in a big wave to destroy the child but could not kill the child as the child's soul came from the sun which Chaifi did not govern.

hermit crab scampering
with souvenir due to shortage of
Giant African Snail Shells.

In time, the child became a man and escaped by transforming into a fish, making Chaifi so angry that he chased it into a lagoon and built a huge fire underneath until it was all dried up. But the fish turned into an iguana and disappeared into the woods. Then Chaifi burned but did not kill the iguana for it became a bird and flew away. By this time, Chaifi was tiring of the chase so he called upon his stock of wind, made a big typhoon which threw the bird on a cliff breaking its wing, whereupon it again turned into a man. Now this man, with the soul from the sun, said to Chaifi, "There, you see that you cannot kill me, for my soul comes from the sun." Chaifi replied, 'Your soul comes from Sasalaguan for I myself made it.' But the man answered, 'The soul which escaped you is at Fua on Guam, where he is making souls from the heat of the sun. And this is the truth, for you see, he made me a soul from the sun, and the wisest of you cannot compete with me.' When Chaifi heard this he went into a terrible passion and in time caught hold of his escaped soul, now a man (human male) at Fua. Immediately a typhoon began to blow, the sea poured over the land (tsunami), and the islands vomited fire. At Fua, immense waves came in and the children of the earth (Taotao tano) fled into the hills for their lives. When the sea subsided they saw their father was still there but had turned into stone. And there he is to this day, keeping an eternal vigil over his children's children and over the land where he first saw the light of day.

Note: This stone known by some as Fuha Rock -- a phallic pillow lava column on the bay adjacent to Umatac. The name Fuha may be related to the word "fuhot - to press and mold something (like clay) into shapes" see pg 149 The Official Chamorro-English dictionary. The Chaife legend additionally explains the genesis of nonhuman spirits. For clarity, any references made to a male rock is generally attributed to the vertical phalanx 'pillow lava' at Fouha Bay North of Umatac. Any attribution made to a female rock is connected to the famous rock at the ancient Fuuna village north of Agat [Levesque, Rodrique, 1992, Vol 7 History of Micronesia - More turmoil in the Marianas, pg 213]. Fu'una Rock north of Agat [the first Chamoru matriarch of Guam] is another traditional site for the creation of humankind as recounted by the Chamorus and told to the Jesuits.

(Comment: The lost Fu'una Rock or "Sea Girt", perhaps north of Agat is distinctly female. Dr. Larry Cunningham wrote that he corroborated (affirmed) through historian Rodrigue Levesque of an edifice which was leveled during the Spanish-Chamoru war at the ancient Fu'una village to build a church. That church was burned down by the Chamorus after a week).

Author's comment: The word Chaife combines the words Acha (to pound or hammer) + Guafi (fire). The Spanish Jesuits describe 'Chayfi' as that spirit of the inferno who has a forge in which he heats souls and hammers them continually (Garcia, Francisco S.J. 'The life and Martyrdom of the Venerable Father Diego Lus de San Vitores'. Richard Flores Taitano Micronesian Area Research Center University of Guam. 2004. p 173). It can be argued that the legend of Chaife is not a duplicate oral tradition recounting the birth of mankind because while Fu'una and Puntan were Creators of mankind Chaife assumes the role of destroyer commanding subterranean fires or volcano eruptions, tsunami, and typhoons. After such calamities, the children of the land (taotao tano) who were formed by the heat of the sun continue to survive. 'The Legend of Chaife' may be a narrative commemorating 'rebirth' of the land and its denizens following nature's destruction. Other societies have similar stories such as "Noah".

Discussion: Cannonical history (i.e. written history passed down by the Spanish Jesuits) directly state that ancient Chamorus had no formal worship, invocation, or prayer to Puntan or his sister to indicate that they were regarded as divinities (Safford, William Edwin. 1905. Useful Plants of Guam, Washington, Government printing Office Pg. 110). Worship of the spirits who ruled the mountains, rivers, and crops was universal. Ancestors received veneration as spirits, too (Johnston, Emilie G., 1993, Father Sanvitores - His Life, Times, and Martyrdom, MARC Publications Series No. 6, pg 27).

However, some indigeneous historians hold that modern day Chamorus continue to accept the politically correct view that there was no ancient religion out of respect, deference and belonging to the Catholic Church.

NOTES: Here are some similar creation myths to Guam's from other countries.

Brother and sister gods in the Japanese creation myth.
Editor's Note: I will quote a Japanese Ethnographer (phd) who wishes to be anonymous. "In Japan, elders know well our cultural myths but the post WWII generation including myself don't know so much. After the war, myths associated with Shinto have been prohibited from being taught in schools. During wartime, the imperial army educated kids that the emperor is equal to KAMI, this means God. Shinto myth stories became narratives of the Holy Emperor's Family Geneology during war time. Especially, creative land stories had strong meaning to control people's mind. After the war, U.S. prohibited teachers to teach the Shinto myth, and now the creative land story is not taught in public schools. When I refer to Shinto stories in Japan, people think that I'm a right-winger. I am ashamed that though I respect land myths of other cultures, I do not honor my own. Our conscious choice to nurture peace meant that we abandon our cultural beliefs -- as how you abandoned Fuuna after the Chamoru Spanish War."

In the beginning, heaven and earth were not divided. Then, from the ocean of chaos, a reed arose, and that was the eternal land ruler, Kunitokotachi. Then came the female god, Izanami, and the male, Izanagi. They stood on the floating bridge of heaven and stirred the ocean with a jeweled spear until it curdled, and so created the first island, Onokoro.

They built a house on this island, with a central stone pillar that is the backbone of the world. Izanami walked one way around the pillar, and Izanagi walked the other. When they met face to face, they united in marriage and their sexual union produced many islands and deities.

In giving birth to the fire god, Izanami was burned to death and went to the land of darkness. Izanagi tried to rescue her, but she had eaten the food of the place and could not leave; Izanagi escaped the Land of Gloom where the rotting corpse of Izanami resided, and returned to the land of the living. There he bathed at the mouth of a clear stream, and, as he washed the filth of the underworld from his face, more gods were born. He wiped his left eye and created the sun (goddess Amaterasu). He wiped his right eye and created the moon (god Tsuki-yomi). He wiped his nose and created the storm tempests (god Susanowo). His bath is the basis for Shinto purification rites. See this link for more detailed japan myth

CHINA's Creation Myth:

The chaos that was in the beginning can be compared to an egg. Yin and Yang were formed when the egg split and became male and female forces. The light parts of the egg rose high and became the sky, while the heavier bits fell and became the earth and sea. Pangu the giant also came from the egg and he grew 10 feet every day for 18000 years, until he was the same height as heaven is from the earth, when he died. As his body decomposed, his stomach became the mountains, his eyes became the sun and the moon, his breath became the wind, his tears became rivers, his semen became pearls, his bone marrow became jade, and his bones became metals and stones. The Genesis Project

India's Creation Myth:

Another myth from the tenth book of the Rig Veda concerns the dismemberment of a being out of which the world emerges. Purusa, a primal man with a thousand heads and a thousand feet, covered earth. He was "the universe, the here and the there, the now and the always." (A Dictionary of Creation Myths, p.140, David Leeming and Margaret Leeming) When the primal man was dismembered, his bottom quarter became our world, his mouth spewed words and became the god Indra, his arms turned into the warrior caste, his thighs became the common people, and his feet became "the lowest of the low". From the dismemberment came also the animals, plants, rituals, sacred words and the Vedas. The moon was born from his mind, the sun from his eye, the wind from his breath, the sky from his head, earth from his feet and the atmosphere from his belly button.

The island nation of Belau (southwest of Guam) Creation Myth:

Long ago, Belau consisted of two islands, Peleliu and Angaur. Once, a woman from Angaur named Latmikaik bore a son whom she named Uab. The following morning after Uab's birth, his mother was astonished to see that he was already crawling, and her amazement grew as Uab learned to walk the next day. He continued to grow very fast and ate huge meals, his food having to be tied to a bamboo pole and raised to his mouth. But he wouldn't stop growing and he had to get his own food and water. At times he would reach into a pig pen to eat the hogs and sometimes even young children were snatched and eaten to satisfy his enormous appetite.

The village people grew worried about this hungry giant boy in their midst and went to Latmikaik to ask her what should be done. The mother, now disgraced because of her son, consented that they could kill Uab. The people started to gather a lot of firewood and piled them in the center of the village. Noticing this unusual activity, Uab asked his mother what they were doing. Latmikaik tearfully told her son that the villagers were preparing to cook a special food for him. After there were enough wood, the people told Uab to stand at the center because they were honoring him. Without his noticing, the people put dried coconut leaves on the wood pile and started a fire. Uab was rapidly consumed by flames and he fell down and died. He was so huge that parts of his body stuck out of the water. The head became Ngerchelong, the neck Arrenged, and the groin became Aimeliik. His back formed the Despedall or east coast of Belau, his stomach Kiukl or the west coast, his burnt legs, Koror, Malakal, Arakabesang, and Ngarukdabel.

As Uab lay there, his mother requested the villagers to cover his body with a mat. But there were not enough mats to cover him and branches had to be used. Even then only half of his body was covered. This is why Belau is half forest and half plains. The people of Belau came from the worms which grew from Chuab's rotted body. They called these islands, Belau, meaning Stories.

Sumerian Creation Myth:

According to the HISTORY CHANNEL, 4000bc Sumeria (modern day IRAQ) developed writing systems birth of human history. The good dragon marduk slays evil dragon Tiamat and fillets the carcass to create earth heavens and humanity.

Good dragon Marduk Marshalled the four winds so that no part of her could escape: South Wind, North Wind, East Wind, West Wind, The gift of his father Anu, he kept them close to the net at his side. He created the imhullu-wind (evil wind), the tempest, the whirlwind, The Four Winds, the Seven Winds, the tornado, the unfaceable facing wind. He released the winds which he had created, seven of them. They advanced behind him to make turmoil inside Tiamat. The lord raised the flood-weapon, his great weapon, And mounted the frightful, unfaceable storm-chariot. The Lord lifted up the flood-weapon, his great weapon And sent a message to Tiamat who feigned goodwill, saying: ‘Why are you so friendly on the surface When your depths conspire to muster a battle force? Just because the sons were noisy (and) disrespectful to their fathers, Should you, who gave them birth, reject compassion? You named Qingu as your lover, You appointed him to rites of Anu-power, wrongfully his. You sought out evil for Anshar, king of the gods, So you have compounded your wickedness against the gods my fathers! Face to face they came, Tiamat and Marduk, sage of the gods. They engaged in combat, they closed for battle. The Lord spread his net and made it encircle her, To her face he dispatched the imhullu-wind so that she could not close her lips. Fierce winds distended her belly; Her insides were constipated and she stretched her mouth wide. He shot an arrow which pierced her belly, Split her down the middle and split her heart, Vanquished her and extinguished her life. He threw down the corpse and stood on top of her.

When he had slain Tiamat, the leader, He broke up her regiments; her assembly was scattered. Then the gods her helpers, who had marched at her side, Began to tremble, panicked, and turned tail. Although he allowed them to come out and spared their lives, They were surrounded, they could not flee. Then he tied them up and smashed their weapons. They were thrown into the net and sat there ensnared. They cowered back, filled with woe. They had to bear his punishment, confined to prison. And as for the dozens of creatures, covered in fearsome rays, The gang of demons who all marched on her right, He fixed them with nose-ropes and tied their arms. He trampled their battle-filth (?) Beneath him. As for Qingu, who had once been the greatest among them, He defeated him and counted him among the dead gods, Wrested from him the Tablet of Destinies, wrongfully his, Sealed it with (his own) seal and pressed it to his breast. When he had defeated and killed his enemies And had proclaimed the submissive (?) foe his slave, And had set up the triumphal cry of Anshar over all the enemy, And had achieved the desire of Nudimmud, Marduk the warrior Strengthened his hold over the captive gods,

And to Tiamat, whom he had ensnared, he turned back. The Lord trampled the lower part of Tiamat, With his unsparing mace smashed her skull, Severed the arteries of her blood, And made the North Wind carry it off as good news. His fathers saw it and were jubilant: they rejoiced, Arranged to greet him with presents, greetings gifts. The Lord rested, and inspected her corpse. He divided the monstrous shape and created marvels (from it). He sliced her in half like a fish for drying: Half of her he put up to roof the sky, Drew a bolt across and made a guard hold it. Her waters he arranged so that they could not escape. He crossed the heavens and sought out a shrine; He levelled Apsu, dwelling of Nudimmud. The Lord measured the dimensions of Apsu And the large temple (Eshgalla), which he built in its image, was Esharra: In the great shrine Esharra, which he had created as the sky, He founded cult centres for Anu, Ellil, and Ea.

He fashioned stands for the great gods. As for the stars, he set up constellations corresponding to them. He designated the year and marked out its divisions, Apportioned three stars each to the twelve months When he had made plans of the days of the year, He founded the stand of Neberu to mark out their courses, So that none of them could go wrong or stray. He fixed the stand of Ellil and Ea together with it, Opened up gates in both ribs, Made strong bolts to left and right, With her liver he located the Zenith; He made the crescent moon appear, entrusted night (to it) And designated it the jewel of night to mark out the days. ‘Go forth every month without fail in a corona, At the beginning of the month, to glow over the land. You shine with horns to mark out six days; On the seventh day the crown is half. The fifteenth day shall always be the mid-point, the half of each month. When Shamash looks at you from the horizon, Gradually shed your visibility and begin to wane. Always bring the day of disappearance close to the path of Shamash, And on the thirtieth day, the [year] is always equalized, for Shamash is (responsible for) the year. A sign [shall appear (?)]: sweep along its path. Then always approach the [ ] and judge the case. [ ] the Bowstar to kill and rob. (15 lines broken) At the New Year's Festival Year [ ] May [ ] The bolt of the exit [ ] From the days [ ] The watches of night and day [ ] The spittle of Tiamat [ ] Marduk [ ] He put into groups and made clouds scud. Raising winds, making rain, Making fog billow, by collecting her poison, He assigned for himself and let his own hand control it. He placed her head, heaped up [ ] Opened up springs: water gushed out. He opened the Euphrates and the Tigris from her eyes, Closed her nostrils, [ ]. He piled up clear-cut mountains from her udder, Bored waterholes to drain off the catchwater. He laid her tail across, tied it fast as the cosmic bond (?), And [ ] the Apsu beneath his feet. He set her thigh to make fast the sky, With half of her he made a roof; he fixed the earth. He [ ] the work, made the insides of Tiamat surge, Spread his net, made it extend completely. He . . . [ ] heaven and earth [ ] their knots, to coil [ ]

When Marduk heard the speech of the gods, He made up his mind to perform miracles. He spoke his utterance to Ea, And communicated to him the plan that he was considering. ‘Let me put blood together, and make bones too. Let me set up primeval man: Man shall be his name. Let me create a primeval man. The work of the gods shall be imposed (on him), and so they shall be at leisure.

The Germanic Myth of Creation

In the beginning nothing existed except for Ginnungagap. Neither sand, sea, heaven or earth had been created. After a long span of time, a new realm emanated in the south called Muspell. It was made of fire, glowing embers, and scorching heat. In the north a second region sprang forth called Niflheim. It consisted of bitter winds, and of freezing ice and snow. Ginnungagap was situated between these two realms, and the waters from the eleven rivers of Hvergelmir flowed here. In the middle of the void all was mild, until one day the elements of fire and ice collided. In the north Niflheim's cold breeze began to freeze the void, while the southern part was thawed by the warmth emanating from Muspell. All was disorder. Life emerged from the drops of this great chaos in the shape of a giant. His name was Ymir and the frost giants are his descendants. While Ymir was asleep, the first man and woman were born from the sweat of his left armpit, and his legs gave birth to a son. Meanwhile, the ice on Ginnungagap continued to melt, until Audumbla the cow emerged. She fed the giant Ymir with her four teats. She sustained herself by licking the ice. As Audumbla licked the salty ice blocks for three consecutive nights, another being appeared, named Buri. Buri's son Bor married Bestla. They had three sons, Odin,Vili, and Ve. Continue Bor's sons had a raging hatred towards the giant Ymir, and they plotted his death. Ymir's corpse was carried to the center of Ginnungagap and cut into many pieces. Odin, Vili, and Ve fashioned the world out of Ymir's body. From Ymir's flesh they made the earth, and the mountains from his unbroken bones. From Ymir's shattered skeleton parts, teeth, and toes they created pebbles, boulders and rocks. Ymir's flowing blood gave rise to the rivers, lakes, and sea. Maggots grew from Ymir's rotting carcass,and they were shaped into dwarfs. Odin, Vili, and Ve lifted Ymir's skull so high it reached the end of the earth's limits, and they called it the sky. The sons of Bor placed a dwarf on each of the four corners to hold it over the earth. Their names were: Nordri, Sudri, Austri, and Vestri. Odin, Vili, and Ve snatched glowing embers from the realm of Muspellheim and fashioned the sun, moon, and stars. These orbs were placed above the world to illuminate the earth. Some stars were given a fixed point in the sky, while others were allowed to dance freely. Continue Odin, Vili, and Ve created the world in spherical form, and a body of water surrounded the earth.They designated part of the world as Jotunheim for the race known as the frost and rock giants. Because of the giants' malevolence towards humans, the brothers took Ymir's eyebrows to form a protective wall/enclosure around the center of the earth. This sheltered area was called Midgard, and housed the human race. Odin, Vili, and Ve flung Ymir's brains up high in the sky, were they formed clouds. One day the sons of Bor came across two fallen trees. One was an Ash and the other an Elm. From these trees Odin created the first man and woman and gave them the essence of life. Vili gave them thought and feeling, and Ve gave them the ability to hear, speak and see. Their names were Ask and Embla. Odin, Vili, and Ve created the means to measure and record time. The light and dark phases of the earth were ruled by Night and Day. Odin set them in the sky on chariots which circled the world every two half days. Night's chariot was pulled by a horse named Hrimfaxi and Day's chariot by a mare named Skinfaxi. A man named Mundilfari had a son named Moon and a daughter named Sun. Theses two siblings were said to possess radiant beauty. Sun and Moon were snatched away by Odin and were placed in the sky to guide the orbs with these names. They drove chariots, and their horses were called Arvak (shining mane) and Alsvid (early-walker and all strong). Moon follows the moon around and decides its phases. The sun is chased by a wolf named Skoll, while a wolf named Hati Hrodnitnisson runs ahead of her trying to catch the moon.. Both the moon and the sun will be devoured by the wolves in the moment before Ragnarok -the end of the world.

Another Version of Chinese Creation Myth

In the beginning , the heavens and earth were still one and all was chaos. The universe was like a big black egg, carrying Pan Gu inside itself. After 18 thousand years Pan Gu woke from a long sleep. He felt suffocated, so he took up a broadax and wielded it with all his might to crack open the egg. The light, clear part of it floated up and formed the heavens, the cold, turbid matter stayed below to form earth. Pan Gu stood in the middle, his head touching the sky, his feet planted on the earth. The heavens and the earth began to grow at a rate of ten feet per day, and Pan Gu grew along with them. After another 18 thousand years, the sky was higher, the earth thicker, and Pan Gu stood between them like a pillar 9 million li in height so that they would never join again. When Pan Gu died, his breath became the wind and clouds, his voice the rolling thunder. One eye became the sun and on the moon. His body and limbs turned to five big mountains and his blood formed the roaring water. His veins became far-stretching roads and his muscles fertile land. The innumerable stars in the sky came from his hair and beard, and flowers and trees from his skin and the fine hairs on his body. His marrow turned to jade and pearls. His sweat flowed like the good rain and sweet dew that nurtured all things on earth. According to some versions of the Pan Gu legend, his tears flowed to make rivers and radiance of his eyes turned into thunder and lighting. When he was happy the sun shone, but when he was angry black clouds gathered in the sky. One version of the legend has it that the fleas and lice on his body became the ancestors of mankind. The Pan Gu story has become firmly fixed in Chinese tradition. There is even an idiom relating to it: "Since Pan Gu created earth and the heavens," meaning "for a very long time." Nevertheless, it is rather a latecomer to the catalog of Chinese legends. First mention of it is in a book on Chinese myths written by Xu Zheng in the Three Kingdoms period (CE 220-265). Some opinions hold that it originated in south China or southeast Asia.

Scandinavian [VIKING] Creation Story

Odin is the All-Father. He is the oldest and most powerful of the Gods. Through the ages he has ruled all things. He created heaven and earth, and he made man and gave him a soul. But even the All-Father was not the very first. In the beginning, there was no earth, no sea, no sky. Only the emptiness of Ginnungagap, waiting to be filled. In the south, the fiery realm of Muspell came into being, and in the north, the icy realm of Niflheim. Fire and ice played across the emptiness. And in the center of nothingness the air grew mild. Where the warm air from Muspell met the cold air from Niflheim, the ice began to thaw. As it dripped, it shaped itself into the form of a sleeping giant. His name was Ymir, and he was evil. As Ymir slept, he began to sweat. There grew beneath his left arm a male and a female, and from his legs another male was created. These were the first frost giants, all of whom are descended from Ymir. Then the ice-melt formed a cow, named Audhumla. Four rivers of milk flowed from her and fed Ymir. Audhumla nourished herself by licking the salty blocks of ice all around. By the end of her first day she had uncovered the hair of a head. By the end of her second day the whole head was exposed, and by the end of a third day there was a complete man, His name was Buri, and he was strong and handsome. Buri had a son named Bor, who married Bestla, the daughter of one of the frost giants. Bor and Bestla had three sons: Odin, Vili and Ve. Odin and his brothers hated the brutal frost giant Ymir, and they slew him. So much blood flowed from the slaughtered giant that it drowned all the frost giants save Bergelmir and his wife, who escaped in a boat made from a hollowed tree trunk. From Ymir's flesh, Odin and his brothers made the earth, and from his shattered bones and teeth, they made the rocks and stones. From Ymir's blood, they made the rivers and lakes, and they circled the earth with an ocean of blood. Ymir's skull they made into the sky, secured at four points by four dwarfs named East, West, North and South. They flung sparks of fire from Muspell high into the sky to make the sun, the moon, and the stars. From Ymir's brains, they shaped the clouds. The earth was made in the form of a circle and around the edge of it lay the great sea. Odin and his brothers gave one area, Jotunheim, to the giants. They also established the kingdom of Midgard, protecting it from the giants with fortifications made from Ymir's eyebrows. One day, as they walked along the shore of the great sea, Odin and his brothers came across two logs. Odin gave them breath and life; Vili gave them brains and feelings; and Ve gave them hearing and sight. These were the first man, Ask, and the first woman, Embla, and Midgard was their home. From them, all the families of mankind are descended. Below Midgard is the icy realm of death, Niflheim. Above it is the realm of the Gods, Asgard, where Odin sits on his throne and watches over all the worlds. Asgard and Midgard are linked by a rainbow bridge, Bifrost. At the center of all the realms is a great ash tree, Yggdrasil, whose branches shade the world, and whose roots support it.

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